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FinTech Insights · 科技伦理 | 世界银行副行长华敬东:应制定一套引导金融科技行业健康发展的原则和指导方针

2021-05-26

随着金融科技的快速发展以及在各个领域的应用扩大,金融科技伦理成为各方关注的重要议题。央行金融科技委员会在部署2021年工作重点时,也将推动金融领域科技伦理体系建设列为重点任务之一。


4月23日下午,世界银行副行长兼司库华敬东以书面的形式在北京前沿金融监管科技研究院主办的“金融领域科技伦理治理体系建设”研讨会上为大家带来了关于金融科技伦理发展的解读。


以下为华敬东的文稿:


中文翻译版


感谢北京前沿监管科技研究院邀请我参加你们首次活动。由于时差原因不能线上接入深表遗憾,但仍然很高兴能借此机会分享我对金融科技伦理体系建设这一重大议题的几点思考。


在金融普惠,尤其是服务女性群体和非正规金融部门方面,金融科技发挥了积极作用。以非洲为例,肯尼亚通过M-Pesa将金融覆盖率(以成年人口为基数)从不到百分之十显著提升到超过百分之九十。肯尼亚也是第一个通过手机应用程序发行政府债券(M-Akiba),从而为其公民创造储蓄机会的主权国家。


你们对于“金融科技伦理体系建设”这一关键议题的关注意义重大。若不主动将社会和伦理责任纳入金融科技发展的指导原则,金融科技的无序增长可能会带来难以把控的负面影响,甚至掩盖其来之不易的阶段性成果和积极效益。因此,着手制定一套引导金融科技行业健康发展的原则和指导方针既是与时俱进,也是大势所趋。


通过回顾绿色债券及其相关监管框架的发展,我们也许能更好的理解金融科技伦理体系建设的可能路径。2008年世界银行发行了全球首支绿色债券,当时并无先例和框架可循。然而,本着世界银行一直以来对全球利益、社会责任、透明度和主动披露的承诺,我们将制定绿色债券全球标准作为己任。基于这种使命感,我们与国际资本市场协会(ICMA)积极开展合作,发起绿色债券原则(GBP)并特别成立了执行委员会以指导其发展。(https://www.icmagroup.org/sustainable-finance/the-principles-guidelines-and-handbooks/green-bond-principles-gbp/)该原则主要关注债券收益使用、项目评估和筛选流程、收益管理和报告。之后我们又发起了《社会债券原则》、《可持续发展债券指引》和《与可持续发展挂钩债券原则》作为对该原则的补充和完善。过去十年中,GBP被证实在建立绿色债券全球标准和信任方面发挥了关键作用,成功助力绿色债券从一个小众债券产品逐步发展成万亿美元级市场。


尽管GBP是一个自愿性流程指南,但ICMA成员和GBP执行委员会影响力广泛,包括一批重量级投资机构(贝莱德、太平洋投资管理公司、苏黎世保险、东方汇理等)、债券发行机构(世界银行、国际金融公司、欧洲投资银行等)和承销商(摩根大通、美银美林、汇丰等)。因此该原则虽然不具备法律约束力却备受市场重视和认可。GBP执行委员会还针对特定议题成立了多个常设工作小组。目前正在运行中的五个常设工作小组包括:可持续发展债券、气候融资、绿色项目适配性、社会债券和影响力报告。


希望GBP的经验能够为中国金融科技的伦理标准制定和市场健康发展提供借鉴和参考,助力中国金融科技更好的服务实体经济,造福大众。


祝愿此次研讨会取得圆满成功,希望在不久的将来能够现场参与。


英文原版


Thank you very much for inviting me to attend your inaugural discussion on the topic. My sincere apologies for not being able to attend due to time constraint.


FinTech has huge positive benefit in terms of financial inclusion, especially for women and for the informal sector. For example, through M-Pesa, access to finance in Kenya sharply increased from less than 10% of the adult population prior to the launch to over 90% now. Kenya government became the first sovereign to issue retail bonds (M-Akiba) through mobile phone apps, to provide savings opportunities for Kenya citizens.


I very much applaud your leadership in bringing the topic into sharp focus. Without a conscious effort to put social/ethical responsibilities into the guiding principles on FinTech development, it is possible that unchecked growth in FinTech could bring unintended negative consequences and overshadow positive outcomes. Therefore I believe it is important and timely to begin drawing up a set of principles and guidelines to guide the healthy development of the FinTech sector.


I’d like to draw a parallel with the development of the Green Bond market and its associated regulatory framework. When the World Bank issued the world’s first Green Bond in 2008, there was no precedence and no framework. However, given the World Bank’s own commitment to global good, social responsibility, transparency and proactive disclosure, we put developing a high global standard on Green Bond as an organic part of ourmission. Therefore we worked with ICMA (International Capital MarketAssociation) and formed an Executive Committee to guide the development of the Green Bond Principles(GBP).(https://www.icmagroup.org/sustainable-finance/the-principles-guidelines-and-handbooks/green-bond-principles-gbp/). The principles covered the use of proceeds, process for project evaluation and selection, management of the proceeds and reporting. The GBP, later complemented by the Social Bond Principles, The Sustainability Bond Guidelines and the Sustainability-Linked Bond Principles, played a key role in building a global standard and trust, which enabled the green bond market to grow from a niche product to over US$ 1 trillion in a short period of a decade.


While the GBP is a voluntary global standard, the membership of ICAM and the Executive Committee of GBP has broad presentation including investors (Blackrock, PIMCO, Zurich Insurance, Amundiand others), Issuers (World Bank, IFC, EIB and others) and underwriters (JPMorgan, Bank of America Merrill Lynch, HSBC and others). This ensured the wide adaptation and acceptance of the standard. The GBP Executive Committee has a number of standing working groups to focus on specific topics. Currently there are five standing working groups: Sustainability-linked bonds, climate transition finance, green projects eligibility, social bonds and impact reporting.


I hope the experience of the Green Bond Principles could be of some reference value to the development of social/ethical guidelines and principles for the Chinese FinTech market to provide a roadmap for the continued healthy development to benefit citizens and the real economy.


I wish the discussion a great success and hope to be able to attend in person in the near future.


作者 | 华敬东 世界银行副行长兼司库

翻译 | 罗曼、李思睿


来源:前沿监管科技


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